This is when an obstruction blocks the windpipe, causing a person to be severely short of breath. Dislodge the respiratory tract obstruction by bending the patient’s head and shoulders forward, or in the case of a small child, hold them upside down and thump the back hard, between the shoulder-blades. Try inducing vomiting to help the person regurgitate the item causing the blockage.
A seizure may be caused by epilepsy. The symptoms include unconsciousness, muscle contractions and convulsions, clouded awareness, weakness, loss of sensation, strange feelings in the stomach, fidgeting, confusion and sleepiness after the seizure.
First aid for seizures aims at keeping the person safe until it stops on its own. Loosen any clothing around the person’s neck, do not restrain them or put anything into their mouth, clear the area around them and stay with them till the seizure stops.
General rules for treatment:-
1. Avoid handling the affected area more than necessary. See that your hands are as clean as possible by washing them.
2. Do not apply lotions of any kind.
3. Do not remove burned clothing and do not break blisters.
4. Cover the area (including burned clothing), with a dry sterile dressing if possible, or similar material such as clean lint, freshly-laundered linen.
5. Bandage firmly, except when blisters are present or suspected, in which case, bandage lightly.
6. Immobilise the area by suitable means.
7. Treat for shock.
In case of a major burn, move the patient to the hospital as quickly as possible. The patient will probably require an anaesthetic, so don’t give any oral medicines.
If the burns are caused by a corrosive chemical:-
1. Thoroughly flood the part with water.
2. Bathe the part freely with an alkaline solution made from two teaspoons of baking soda or washing soda in one pint of warm water.
1. If the burn is caused by quicklime, brush off any remains.
2. Bathe the part freely with
1. Pain and discomfort in the chest area.
2. Shortness of breath, stomach discomfort, fainting, sweating, pain in the neck, jaws or shoulders.
Symptoms of heart attacks are different for men and women:-
Men have cold sweats, and pain may be felt descending through the left arm.
Women are more likely to have shortness of breath, stomach upset, dizziness and tiredness.
Treatment within the first 90 minutes of a heart attack dramatically increases the chances of survival. Before the person reaches a hospital, an aspirin tablet can lower the risk of clot formation.
Seat the patient in a comfortable position. If breathing isn’t normal or the patient is unresponsive, hands-on CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) may be applied, to double the chances of survival
In case of wounds, follow the steps below:-
1. Place patient in a suitable position, elevating the bleeding part, unless it is a fractured limb.
2. Do not disturb any blood clots formed.
3. Removing as little clothing as possible, expose the wound.
4. Remove any foreign bodies which are visible, and can be easily picked out or wiped off with a clean dressing.
6. Apply and maintain both direct and indirect pressure.
7. Apply a clean dressing and bandage.
8. Immobilise the injured part. When the wound is near a joint, immobilise it using splints if needed.
Remember, that if there is a foreign body in the wound which cannot be removed easily, cover it with a dressing, and build up sufficient pads around the wound without applying pressure to the foreign body.
In case of a shock, prompt action can aid the patient’s life. Perform the following steps.
1. Switch off the current, and if it cannot be put off, cut off supply by removing the plug, breaking the cable or wrenching it free. Never attempt to cut a cable with a knife or scissors.
2. Remove the patient from contact with the current with the greatest care, using dry insulating materials. With domestic apparatus, gloves are good; a folded garment or newspaper gives fair protection.
3. Reassure the patient.
4. Lay the patient down on their back, with the head low and turned to one side unless there is an injury to the head, abdomen or chest when the head and shoulders should be slightly raised and supported.
5. Loosen clothing around the neck, chest and waist.
6. Wrap them in a blanket or rug.
7. Give sips of water, coffee or any liquid but never alcohol.